History, Culture and Tourism of  Yogyakarta

Establishment originated of  Yogyakarta City from Giyanti  Agreement on  February 13, 1755 signed by the Dutch  Company     under     the signature of Governor Nicholas Hartingh on behalf of the Governor General Jacob Mossel. The text of Giyanti Agreement : Country Mataram split into two: Half is still a kingdom of Surakarta Rights, half again the Prince Mangkubumi Rights. In the same treaty recognized Mangkubumi Prince became King over half the area of the Inland Empire with the title Java, Sultan Hamengkubuwono Senopati Ing Alega Abdul Rachman Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah.

The areas that became his reign was Mataram (Yogyakarta), Pojong, Sragen, Bagelen, Kedu, plus Bumigede and foreign areas, namely: Madison, Magetan, Cirebon, Half Pacitan, Kartosuro, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, Mojokerto, Bojonegoro, Ngawen, Sela , Kuwu, Wonosari, Grobogan.

Once completed the Regional Distribution Agreement, the title of Prince Sultan Mangkubumi Hamengkubuwono I quickly determined that the Regional Mataram is in his power Ngayogyakarta named in the Sultanate and its capital Ngayogyakarta (Yogyakarta). This Decree was announced on March 13, 1755.

The place chosen to be the capital and administrative center of this forest is called the Beringin (Ficus Benjamina), which has a small village called Pachetokan, is there are a rest house named Garjitowati, made by Susuhunan Pakubuwono II first and name later changed to Ayodya. After determining the above announcement, Sultan Hamengkubuwono immediately ordered to the people to chop the forest had to set up the Palace.

Before it became the Palace, Sultan Hamengkubuwono I pleased occupy guest (pesanggrahan) in Ambarketawang, Gamping areas, who was doing well. Occupied rest house is officially on October 9, 1755. From this place he always supervise and regulate the construction of the palace was doing.

A year later Sultan Hamengkubuwono pleased I entered the New Palace as the opening. Thus stood the city of Yogyakarta or real full name is Negari Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat. Pesanggrahan Ambarketawang left by Sultan Hamengkubuwono to move settled in the new Kingdom. The inauguration which occurred On October 7, 1756.

Yogyakarta city was built in 1755, along with the construction of Ngayogyakarta  Sultanate Kingdom by Sultan Hamengkubuwono I in Forest Ficus benjamina, a region  between Winongo River and Code River a location where it appears the strategy by the defense in terms of the time after the Declaration of Independence August 17, 1945, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and Sri Paduka Paku Alam VIII received the appointment of a charter of Governor  and Deputy Governor of the Yogyakarta Provincial President, later on 5 September 1945 he issued a mandate which states that the Sultanate and the region is Pakualaman Special areas that are part of the Republic of Indonesia under article 18 of the 1945 Constitution. And on October 30, 1945, he issued a second mandate which states that the implementation of the Government in Yogyakarta Special Region will be conducted by Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and Sri Paduka Paku Alam VIII together the National Committee of the Working Committee.

Although both the city of Yogyakarta to be part of the Empire and who became part of Pakualaman been able to establish a Parliament and Council of the City. City Government led by the Regent and Pakualaman Sultanate City, but the city  of Yogyakarta had become Municipal or Autonomous City, because the power of autonomy covering various areas of governance still remain in the hands of Yogyakarta Special Region Government.

Which includes the city of Yogyakarta Sultanate and the region became newly Pakualaman Township or City with the birth of Autonomy Act No. 17 of 1947, in Article I states that district that  includes the City of Yogyakarta Sultanate and Pakualaman region and some areas of Bantul Regency is now the District Kotagede and Umbulharjo defined as an area eligible control and manage his own household. The area is called Haminte City Yogyakaarta. To implement the autonomy of the first mayor to be occupied by Ir.Moh Enoh difficulties because the area is still part of the Special Region of Yogyakarta and its status has not released. It was more evident with the existence of Law Number 22 Year 1948 concerning the Principles of Local Government, where the Special Region of Yogyakarta as the Municipal Level I and Level II Yogyakarta as part of the Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY).

The next mayor of the occupied by the Mr.Soedarisman Poerwokusumo whose position as the Daily Government Agency and Legislative concurrently become Chairman at that time called the DPR-GR with members of 25 people.  Yogyakarta new Parliament was formed on May 5, 1958 with 20 members as a result of the 1955 election.

With back to 1945 through Presidential Decree July 5, 1959, the Law No. 1 of 1957 was replaced by Law No. 18 Year 1965 on the main points in the Regional Government, Regional Head and tasks are separated and formed DPRD Deputy Head of Regional and agencies Daily Government and substituted the term Township Municipality of Yogyakarta.

On the basis of the MPRS Decree No. XXI/MPRS/1966 issued Law No. 5 of 1974 concerning the Principles of Regional Government. Based on these laws, DIY is the Province and Provincial also led by the Head of the Regional Governor as Head of the Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY) and the Vice Governor of Yogyakarta Special Region Chief who is not bound by the terms, conditions and ways to rapture Regional Head and Vice Regional Head of others, especially for his, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and Sri Paduka Paku Alam VIII.  Yogyakarta Municipality while Level II is the region led by the Mayor Head of  the Regional Level II where bound by the terms, conditions and how the appointment of the head of the Regional Level II as the others.

Along with the reform era, the demand to hold the government in autonomous regions more prominent, then exit Law No.22 of 1999 on Regional Government which regulate local authority conducting extensive regional autonomy, real and responsible. This law is the appropriate term for Dati II Yogyakarta municipality was changed to City of Yogyakarta while for the government called the City Government of Yogyakarta denan with the Mayor of Yogyakarta as the Head of Area.

Cultural Heritage

Stretched between the monument as the northern boundary and Stage Krapyak the southern boundary, between Code River in the east and west Winongo River. Between Mount Merapi and the South Sea, Palace in the minds of Javanese society, defined as the center of  the world that is described as the center of the universe.

Sultan Palace History

As the say on above, after Giyanti Agreement, Prince Mangkubumi given area of Yogyakarta. To run the government, Prince Mangkubumi built a palace in the year 1755 in Beringan forest area. This land was considered good enough because flanked by two rivers, so protected from the possibility of flooding. The first king in the Sultanate of Yogyakarta is the title of Prince Mangkubumi Sultan Hamengkubuwono I (HB I).

Kraton, Keraton or Karaton (Royal Palace) comes from the word ka-ratu-an, which means a place to live queen / king.  Are broader sense, be described in simple, that the whole structure and building area of the Kingdom means associated with the Javanese worldview essential, namely Sangkan Paraning Dumadi (where it comes from humans and where humans finally after death).

Outlines, the Palace area extends 5 km to the south until Krapyak and 2 km to the north end of the monument. On this line there is a linear line of dualism reversed, so that could be read symbolically philosophically. From south to north, as a human birth from a high place to the finite nature, and vice versa as the return of  humans to the side Dumadi (God in the eyes of Java). While the Palace as a physical with the king as a symbol of true spirit that comes into the body.

Palace to Tugu also be interpreted as a way of life full of temptations. Beringharjo market symbolizes women temptation. While the temptation of power is symbolized by Kepatihan Building. Both are located to  the right.  Straight road itself as a human symbol close to the Creator (Sangkan Paraning Dumadi). Simply put, Tugu symbolism Lingga (male) and Krapyak as Yoni (female). And the Palace as a body that comes from both.

Spatial meaning Kraton Yogyakarta

After the 1867 hit by the earthquake, the Palace suffered heavy damage. During HB VII in 1889, the building was restored. Although the layout is retained, but the shape of the building changed, as seen today monument and the ward or ward Manguntur Tangkil Kencana (where the king's throne), located in a straight line, this implies, when the Emperor sat on his throne and looking toward the monument, so he will always remember the people (Manunggaling Kawula Gusti).

The same order as the Palace Sultan of Mataram dynasty in general. Kencana wards on which the king reigned, together with Ward Prabayeksa as a place to store weapons heritage Kingdom (in this room there Wiji Kyai oil lamp, which always kept the courtiers not to die), serves as a center. The ward is covered by the court Kedhaton, so to reach the center, must go through the pages resemble layered circuit bewa (waves) above the sea. Kraton spatial arrangement is very similar to the constellation of mountains and plains Guava Dwipa, which is seen as a continent of the universe center.

From north to south area of the Palace there are successive North Square, North Hinggil Siti, North Kemandhungan, Srimanganti, Kedhaton, Kemagangan, South Kemandhungan, Siti South Hinggil Square South (which the court shielded the high wall).

While the door to go through to get to each place nine, called Regol. From the north there is the gate, pangurukan, tarub great, brajanala, srimanganti, kemagangan, gadhung mlati, kemandhungan and ivory. Brongtodiningrat important at these numbers, the numbers represent the highest perfection. This corresponds to nine holes in human beings commonly known as babahan hawa sanga.

The sacredness of each Palace building is indicated by the frequency and intensity of activity at the site of the Sultan. Square, Cultural, and Siti Hinggil, in this place of Sultan only present three times a year, ie at Grebeg Maulud, Pisowanan Ageng, Sawal and Besar. And the opportunities that are incidental to a very specific example during the coronation of the Emperor and the coronation of Prince Crown Prince or Duke Anom.

Sultan Palace is indeed an old building, once damaged and restored. At first glance like the Palace buildings generally. But if we explore the Palace of Yogyakarta, which is the largest and most beautiful examples with symbolic meaning, a philosophy of life, human nature, how nature works and human beings live their lives and the lives of the existence of hidden symbolism in it.

Some Another Interesting Places


Castle is a royal park or a rest house Yogya Sultan and his family. Actually besides Taman Sari, the Sultanate has a rest house Yogyakata like Warungboto, Manukberi, Ambarbinangun and Ambarukmo. All of which served as a health resort and the Sultan and his family praying. Besides the components  shown as a resting place, rest house, rest house is always a component of defense. So is just the Castle.

Location of the Castle is only about 0.5 km south of Sultan Palace. This building is the architect of the Portuguese, so briefly as if the building has a European architecture that is very strong, in addition to the symbolic meanings of Java will be retained. But if we observe, meaning the element is more dominant building Java in here. Castle built during the Sultan Hamengkubuwono I or around the end of XVII century AD. Castle is not merely a royal park, but the building is a complex consisting of swimming baths, water canals,  special rooms and a large pool (when open water canals).

Part the Castle :

1. Part Sacred
Castle sacred part is indicated by a rather solitary buildings. This room consists of a building served as a hermitage Sultan and his family.
2. Section Swimming Baths
This section is used for the Sultan and his family have fun. This section consists of two ponds separated by multistory buildings. Pool water out of the shower shape of a typical animal. The building is very unique pool with large pots inside.
3. Kenanga Island Section
This section consists of several buildings which Kenanga Island or Island House, Well Gemuling, and hallways underground.

Kenanga Island or the Island House is a tall building that serves as a place to rest, as well as a place of surveillance. The building is the only one who would look if the open water canals and water commemorate this Kenanga Island area. Mentioned that when viewed from above, the building as if a lotus flower in the middle of a very large pond. Gemuling wells is a circular building shaped like a well inside the rooms are supposedly once functioned as a place of prayer.

Meanwhile alleys in this area is said to serve as the first passageway connecting the castle with the Sultan's palace. There's even a legend that says that this passage through to the south coast and is a way for the Sultan of Yogyakarta to meet with Nyai Roro Kidul is said to be the wife of the kings Yogayakarta Sultanate. This section is a part that serves as a place of defense or the protection of the Sultan's family at any time if there are attacks from the enemy.

Castle is a pretty interesting place to visit. Besides its location is not too far from the Sultan's Palace which is the main attractions of this city, Castle has some privileges. Castle among other specialty lies in the building itself is relatively intact and well preserved environment that strongly supports its existence as a tourist attraction.

Castle in the environment can be found Saka Tunggal Mosque which has one pole. Although the mosque was built in the twentieth century, but its uniqueness can still be an asset to this complex. In addition, the region Tamam Castle with his village is very famous for its batik handicrafts. We can go shopping or see directly batik-batik painting and convection form. Castle ward is well known that a lot of good traffic from foreign tourists and tourist archipelago. Not far from the Castle, can be found Ngasem Market which is a traditional market and the biggest bird market in Yogyakarta. Some supporters of the appeal is what makes Castle became one of the tourist destination of Yogyakarta Sultan Palace.


Stretched across the imaginary axis connecting the sultan's palace, monument and the peak of Mount Merapi, this path is formed into a trade locality after  Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I developed a means of trading  through a traditional market since 1758. After over 248 years, the place still survive as a trade area even be one of the icons of Yogyakarta, known as the Malioboro.

Located about 800 meters from the sultan's palace, this place was once filled with a bouquet of flowers every time the Palace implement celebration. Malioboro, which in Sanskrit means "flowers" becomes the basis for naming the street.

Flanked by shops, offices, restaurants, star hotels and historic buildings, streets that once had to struggle as the basis of the Dutch military aggression to-2 in 1948 the land was once a wandering of the artists belonging to the community Persada Studi Klub (PSK) led artists bannerman Landu Paranggi since the 1970s until around 1990.

Prambanan, The Most Beautiful Hindu Temple in the World

Prambanan temple is incredibly beautiful building built in the 10th century during the reigns of two kings, and Rakai Rakai Pikatan Balitung. Rose as high as 47 feet (5 meters higher than Borobudur temple), the establishment of this temple has fulfilled the desire maker, shows the triumph of Hinduism in Java. This temple is located 17 kilometers from the city center, in the middle of the area that is now a beautiful park.

There is a legend that Javanese people always tell about this temple. Once, a man named Bandung Bondowoso loved Roro Jonggrang. Because no love, Jonggrang asked Bondowoso make 1000 temples with statues in one night. The request was nearly fulfilled before Jonggrang asked the villagers  to pound rice and make a big fire that created an atmosphere like the morning. New Bondowoso can make 999 statues cursed Jonggrang into the statue in 1000 because he felt cheated.

Prambanan temple has 3 main temples in the main yard, namely Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva. These three temples are symbols of Trimurti in Hindu belief. All of them face east. Each main temple has accompanying temple facing to the west, namely Nandini for Shiva, Swan to Brahma, and Garuda for Vishnu. In addition, there are still squeeze 2 temple, the temple curtain 4, and 4 corner temples. Meanwhile, the second page had 224 temples.

Entering the Shiva temple located in the middle and the highest building, you will find a room 4. One main room contains a statue of Shiva, while the other 3 rooms each containing a statue of Durga (Shiva's wife), Agastya (Shiva's teacher), and Ganesha (Shiva's son). Durga is mentioned as the statue of Roro Jonggrang described in the legend above.

In the Vishnu temple is located in the north of Shiva temple, you will only see one room containing a statue of Vishnu. Similarly, the Brahma temple located on the south side of Shiva temple, you will only find one room with a statue of Brahma.

Accompanying temple is Garuda temple lure is located near the Vishnu temple. This temple save the story of a half-bird figure named Garuda. Garuda is a mystical bird in Hindu mythology, who was gold, white-faced, red-winged, beaked and winged like an eagle. Estimated, the figure is Hindu adaptation of  Bennu figure (means 'rises' or 'shine', usually associated with the god Re) in ancient Egyptian mythology or Phoenix in Old Greek mythology. Garuda can save his mother from the curse of Aruna (Garuda's brother who was born handicapped) by stealing Tirta Amrita (holy water of the gods).

The ability to save was admired by many people until now and used for various purposes. Indonesia used it to sign the state. That said, the creator of the emblem of  Garuda Pancasila find inspiration in this temple. Other countries also use it to sign the country is Thailand, with the same reason but adaptation forms and different appearance. In Thailand, Garuda is known as Pha recruited or recruited.

Prambanan temple also has a load relief Ramayana story. According to experts, the relief was similar to the Ramayana story is revealed through oral traditions. Another interesting relief is Kalpataru tree that the Hindu religion is considered as a tree of life, sustainability and environmental compatibility. In Prambanan, relief of Kalpataru tree is described lions flanking the center. The existence of this tree makes experts consider that the 9th century have wisdom in managing the environment.

Just as the figure of Garuda, Kalpataru is now also used for various purposes. In Indonesia, Kalpataru became a symbol of the Earth (WALHI). In fact, some scientists in Bali to develop the concept of Tri Hita Karana for environmental conservation by seeing Kalpataru relief in this temple. Tree of life also can be found in the mountains that used to open the puppet arts. A proof that the relief panels in Prambanan has worldwide.

If careful, you can also see various birds relief, this time a real bird. Bird reliefs at Prambanan so natural that biologists can identify them even to genus level. One was relief of the Yellow-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea) that invite questions. Why, the bird is only found in Masakambing Island, an island in the Java Sea. Then, whether the species was once numerous in Yogyakarta? Please find out the answer myself. Because, until now no one who can solve the mystery.

Well, there are many more to be unearthed at Prambanan. You must not tire of course. If it was finally exhausted, you can rest in the garden around the temple. Interested? Come immediately. Since September 18, 2006, you can enter the zone 1 Prambanan not even get into the temple. Some of the damage caused by the earthquake May 27, 2006 and is now being repaired.

Borobudur, The Biggest Buddhist Temple in the 9th Century

Who does not know Candi Borobudur? This Buddhist temple has 1460 relief panels and 504 Buddha effigies in the complex. Millions of people longing to visit the buildings included in this World Wonder Heritages. Not surprisingly, since architecturally and functionally, as a place of worship, Borobudur is attractive. Borobudur was built by King Samaratungga, one of the kings of Old Mataram Kingdom, Sailendra descendants.

Based on Kayumwungan inscription, an Indonesian named Hudaya Kandahjaya revealed that Borobudur is a place of worship which was completed May 26, 824, nearly a hundred years since the early days was built. The name of Borobudur itself according to some people means a mountain having terraces (budhara), while the other says that Borobudur means monastery on the high places.

Borobudur shaped building (berundak punden) consists of 10 levels. Height 42 meters before being renovated and 34.5 meters after the renovation because the lowest level was used as a drag. Six lowest level and square in the upper three floors and a circular highest level of  Buddhist stupa facing to the west. Each level represents the stage of human life. In accordance with of Buddha Mahayana, anyone who wants to reach the level of  Buddha must go through each of those life stages.

The base of Borobudur, called Kamadhatu, symbolizing human beings that are still bound by lust. Four levels mentioned above represents Rupadhatu humans who have set themselves free from lust but  still tied to appearance and shape. At these levels, a statue of Buddha placed in open space. Meanwhile, three levels above where the Buddhist stupa placed in the holes is called Arupadhatu, symbolizing human beings that have been freed from lust, appearance, and shape. The top part is called Arupa symbolizes nirvana, where Buddha is residing.

Each terrace has beautiful relief panels showing how skillful. Relief that will be read by coherently when you walk in a clockwise direction (toward the left of the entrance of the temple). The relief panels tell the legendary story of Ramayana. In addition, there are relief panels describing the condition of society at that time. For example, relief of farmers' activity reflecting the advance of agriculture system and relief of sailing boat representing the advance of the time the cruise was centered in Bergotta (Semarang).

All relief panels in Borobudur temple reflect the teachings of the Buddha. Hence, this temple functions as educating the media for people who want to learn Buddhism. Inviting you to walk through each narrow passage in Borobudur in order to understand the philosophy of Buddhism. Atisha, a Buddhist from India in the 10th century, had visited the temple that was built 3 centuries before Angkor Wat in Cambodia and 4 centuries before the Grand Cathedrals in Europe.

Thanks to visiting Borobudur and having Buddhist manuscripts from Serlingpa (King of Sriwijaya), Atisha was able to develop Buddhism. He became head of Vikramasila monastery and taught  Tibetans of practicing Dharma. Six scripts from any Serlingpa reduced to a core doctrine called "The Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment" or better known by the name Bodhipathapradipa.

One of the questions are as yet unresolved about Borobudur is how the condition around the temple was built and why the temple was found in a buried state. Some say Borobudur initially stood surrounded by a swamp and buried because of the eruption of Merapi. Essentially Calcutta inscription reads 'Amawa' means sea of milk. The word is then interpreted as Merapi lava. Some other says that Borobudur buried in the cold lava of Merapi.

With all the grandeur and mystery that is, only natural that many people from all the world enter to Borobudur as a place to visit in his life. Besides enjoying the temple, you can walk around to the villages around Borobudur, such as Karanganyar and Wanurejo to see people making craft activity. You also can go to the top watu Kendil to view the panorama from the top of Borobudur.

Actually there are many temples around the city of Yogyakarta, among others: Gampingan, Gebang, Ijo, Kedulan, Mendut, Pawon, Plaosan, Sambisari and Tara temple. And there are many places of interest, namely Museum Affandi, Kaliurang, Kasongan, Kotagede,  Siluman Cave, Parangtritis beach, Parangkusumo beach, Baron beach,etc.

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  1. There are so many Monuments, Temples, Palaces and much more to see and relish in Yogyakarta. It is a perfect place to go on a vacation and enjoy the historic as well as cultural heritage of this place.

  2. Thanks for your appreciate dear friend,Especially Jogjakarta also Surakarta (Solo) place rich heritage and culture,and we as a nation must be able to preserve the culture..

  3. Jogja, I always love jogja..
    The foods are so delicious, the malioboro, it's culture..
    I found unique fact about jogja
    an imaginer line between mount merapi, white paal, malioboro, until Pantai Selatan in here

    So amazing

  4. Dear Farah,of course Love Jogja and You